Making Math Real in the IB

Hannah Starbuck

In 2019, the International Baccalaureate rewrote their math curriculum, transitioning from three different levels of classes to two. The “newest” class of the two is called Applications and Interpretations, where students consistently look at how math is applied in a real world setting. They are frequently asked to interpret the significance of the different values they calculate and what those values mean in the context of the problem they are solving. While I like the idea of having students explore mathematics through an application based lens, I find that some of the applications are far-fetched and may have little real connection to students.


Now in my third year of teaching IB mathematics, I am familiar with the Applications and Interpretations curriculum, both Standard and Higher Levels. I saw an opportunity to make the Standard Level classes more engaging and interesting for students through projects.


This school year, I’ve been creating projects that explore the different careers that utilize mathematics. I’ve combed through the Applications and Interpretations textbook and have racked my brain for possible careers that meaningfully apply the math content of the course syllabus. My idea is to ensure each chapter has its own project, or that there be content spread across multiple chapters that can be consolidated into one large project. Here I have to give credit to a former colleague of mine, Rob Barnett, who was kind enough to share his Demographer Project template a few years ago. His work inspired me to start thinking about different careers that use math and that could also be fun and interesting for students to think about.


Each project asks for the students to adopt the mindset of a certain career or job. In addition to my own version of the Demographer Project, I have created projects which ask students to think like an artist, a game maker and an architect.


As demographers, students were asked to investigate a population they were genuinely interested in and wanted to learn more about. Students had to find reliable and valid data on their population, graph their data and find a suitable model for their data. They looked at whether exponential models or linear models were a better fit and explored a concept called the coefficient of determination, which is an indicator on how well data fits a particular model. Students were also asked to make future predictions about their population, in relation to their models, and discuss the implications of their results. I asked students to take an objective and unbiased approach to interpreting their results and asked them to discuss the implications of their results, as well as how realistic they were.


The feedback on this project was very positive. Students were asked to write a reflection about the project and discussed things they liked and things they would change. The majority of my students loved the fact that they got to choose their own population and got to study trends over time, which included past history, the present situation and some speculation for the future. They all said in unison that they became more informed about their particular population. So for me, the interdisciplinary approach was a win, even without the time to collaborate directly with colleagues in other disciplines.


The biggest critiques of the project were the difficulties using technology and doing the project mostly remotely. Students had some difficulties understanding the different functions on Desmos and Google


Sheets. Though they initially lacked inexperience with these platforms and required a lot of support, after a while, they got the hang of it and understood the significance of each operation.


Another project I created based on similar themes asked the students to think like an artist. Students created an artistic piece using Pythagorean Spirals. This allowed students to access their creativity, demonstrate their understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem and create their own original work. This project was generally well-received and students enjoyed watching their art come to life as well as observing the nice patterns that occur within the Pythagorean Spirals.


I’ve also recently finished a project that focuses on Probability where students are asked to think like a game maker at a carnival and need to explore the concept of fairness. Students look very analytically at theoretical and experimental probability, different ways of representing/visualizing probability and binomial probability. The culminating activity is a carnival where students have the opportunity to play each other’s games.


I’ve also completed a project that focuses on right triangle and non-right triangle trigonometry where students are asked to think like an architect. Their project is to build a school with a small group of people and they have certain conditions they need to respect. This project allows students to explore the applications of the sine and cosine rule, fundamentals of trigonometry and some 3D geometry. Though these concepts have such interesting and abstract proofs, they provide an even richer application for students to construct something that has been a part of their daily lives.


While the projects are fairly content heavy, I have done my best to establish the importance of collaboration, studying concepts with practical and realistic application and allowing students to create something that is their own vision. There are also certain skills that I think are valuable for students to take away. These include being able to efficiently use technology, using different math “tools” such as rulers, protractors, and calculators and interpreting the meaning of values and how they relate to the larger problem they are solving.


I am continuing to work on projects that focus on being a data analyst, reporter, modeler, urban planner, and more. I find the curriculum planning to be very rewarding and then even more satisfying as I watch my students come alive while engaged in something they’re truly excited about. I am always happy to share materials, you be interested.


As each school year passes, it becomes more and more apparent to me that teaching mathematics with some sort of meaningful and interesting application is crucial to student learning and engagement. Packer (2022), a writer for The Atlantic, asks, “What is school for?” A former teacher responded, “The original thinkers of public education were concerned almost to a point of paranoia about creating self-governing citizens.” The word self-governing is powerful, especially in the context of education. Self-governing is defined as “having control or rule over oneself”. By allowing students to have choice over what they learn in their different classes, we are empowering them to have control over their learning and hopefully communicating the message of self-governing. Karakoc and Cengiz (2015) discuss a couple approaches of realistic mathematics education that include “developing instruction based in experimentally real contexts” and “designing activities to promote pedagogical strategies that support students’ collective


investigation of reality”. These ideas confirm the importance of application-based mathematics to scenarios that students care about and show a genuine interest in. Howe (2018) writes “students benefit from learning experiences that are meaningful, relevant and well-connected to their own experiences. For that to happen, the people teaching those students must be prepared to take on new attitudes of reflectiveness and inquisitiveness”. This is a great opportunity for those of us in education, specifically math education, to create projects and high ceiling math problems that directly relate to students. It also gives them a chance to research topics and ideas that they are truly passionate and interested in and allows them to find authentic and genuine connections to mathematics.


If you would like to discuss project ideas or have questions/comments, please feel free to email me at





Hannah Starbuck earned her Undergraduate Degree in Mathematics from Fort Lewis College and her Master’s Degree in Math Education from University of Colorado – Denver. She has taught math in Colorado, Switzerland and Ecuador. She currently lives and teaches in Quito, Ecuador and is writing projects that align with both IB DP and MYP curriculum.




Chang Wathall, Jennifer, et. al. Mathematics: Applications and Interpretation Standard Level. Oxford University Press, 2019.


Packer, G. (2022, March 10) The Grown-Ups Are Losing It. The Atlantic.


Karakoc, G & Alacaci, C. (2015). Real World Connections in High School Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching. Turkish Journal of Mathematics and Computer Education. matics_Curriculum_and_Teaching


Howe, E.R. (2018, September 11) Let’s Teach Students Why Math Matters in the Real World. The Conversation.

Times are changing, let’s run with it and move forward again

Juliette van Eerdewijk, Chair of ECIS Leadership Special Interest Group
Head of School, International Primary School Khuzam


The world of education has rarely experienced a more dramatic push into the unknown as during the last two years, in which educators have been trying to educate the future generation during a pandemic. Educational systems were turned upside down as educators around the world were desperately trying to teach a traditional curriculum to students online. We were asking teaching staff to follow a curriculum that was designed for face-to-face interaction and using pedagogical approaches that suited daily physical presence in a school, and fit it in a distance learning capsule.


Reflecting back, some schools were forced to upgrade their access to technology whilst others were well prepared with technological equipment. There were teachers who were struggling to cope, working their way through the use of apps and online meeting tools, lacking the skills needed to deliver quality lessons, and reverting back to old-fashioned styles of teaching. Others blossomed into technological wizards, creating learning opportunities that would never have existed had it not been for enforced distance learning. As teachers and students learned to become more skilled at dealing with this challenge, the leaders in the school were pressed to make decisions on what staff and students could handle during these stressful and trying times.


Curricula were adapted, content was cut or shortened, staff training was put on hold, performance management might have been slowed down, etc. What we saw in some schools, was a cut back version of a traditional educational system and exams and pedagogical approaches that no longer worked effectively for the new situation. As some of us were waiting for things to return to normal, others were asking whether going back was what we really wanted.


Schools have been given two years of enforced research! We have moved into a position where we can now evaluate what has been happening during the pandemic to our provision. We can identify the pros and cons of distance learning, which will be different for schools according to their national or cultural setting, the type of school, the availability of resources etc. There is a lot out there that can drag us down and make us depressed about the situation we find ourselves in.


However, I do not believe this will help us get out of the rod of negativity. As leaders of our schools, I believe that we need to focus on the positives. We need to rediscover the passion that we have for our profession. Let’s celebrate what worked well for teachers, what worked well for students and what worked well for specific curriculum areas. All of us were forced to accelerate and upskill our approaches to learning, using the digital platform where students, curriculum and teachers met. As a result of this pandemic, educators became performers as they pre-recorded sessions of their subjects. There is a huge wealth of pre-recorded lessons out there now. What are we going to do with that? How are we going to use this in the future? How can we tap into the positives from the distance learning?


For two years, we slowed down, we learned to accept the uncertainty and we gave in to an attitude of waiting and watching and for some stagnation. Now we need leaders whand innovators. We have the perfect moment right in front of us. Let’s not waste it! The potential for apathy that was created by the slowing down and take us out of this dip and demonstrate leadership that inspires, encourages and stimulates growth again. It is time to stop the pause and start focusing on moving forward, to become risk takers and to protect staff, students, parents and caregivers, we now need to shift back into gear. I urge school leaders to take the lead and grasp the opportunity to truly make changes to the educational system.


As we start evaluating what worked well, we need to keep the following in mind:

What worked well for specific students?

Who were the students that blossomed in these circumstances?

What worked well for them and their situation?

Which students have we missed and how can they be truly included?

How can we use what we have learned, to improve and innovate our education now?


Questions we need to ask ourselves:

Do all students need to be in school every day?

How will what we have learned inform new ways of teaching the curriculum for meaningful learning?

How can we use the bank of resources to benefit the students in a face-to-face setting?

How might resources and accommodations change our teaching mindset and establish a culture of change?

How does student voice and choice shape opportunities for differentiated resources and learning approaches?

What are the small steps we can take to change?

What are our best hopes for teaching and learning in a truly inclusive setting?

What bold decisions should we consider?


So therefore, my questions are to all school leaders.


As leaders of international and national schools, what are we going to do with the positives that has come out of distance learning? Are we going to grab the opportunity and make the changes we need to make or continue as if nothing has happened?


We are now reaching the point where a different leadership is needed, leaders need to take charge of moving the school forward again. The time has come to recognise the great learning that has come from this unexpected world problem and using this as a springboard to initiate a dialogue to push for reforms. Educational reform is more than ever possible. Let us start the conversation amongst ourselves, to lead, to be brave and tackle the question: How will we use what we have learned to intentionally shape education to include all students, so they all benefit from the learning/teaching relationship?


Now is the time for our school leaders to take a stand and use this impetus to make the urgent changes needed in our curricula, in our approaches to teaching and learning, in our school systems. Let the student learning become the driver to instigate change.


Times are changing. Let’s be intentional in how we shape/drive this change.



Juliette van Eerdewijk, Chair of ECIS Leadership Special Interest Group
Head of School, International Primary School Khuzam




Abramson, A. (2021). Capturing the benefits of remote learning. American Psychological Association


Fullan, M. (2001). Leading in a culture of change. Sand Francisco: Jossey-Bass


Fullan, M. (2008). The six secrets of change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass


Hazari, S. (2021). The benefits of Online learning during the pandemic. London College of Contemporary Arts


Li, C. & Lalani, F. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how. World Economic Forum


MacBeath, J. & Dempster, N. (2009). Connecting leadership and learning. Abingdon: Routledge

Greater wellness through purposeful and consistent action

Mike Kuczala

It appears not a day goes by that doesn’t present another headline, article, social media post, or blog describing the tremendous stress and daily pressures of being in the classroom. These are often accompanied by the astonishing numbers of teachers who are leaving the profession. LinkedIn recently reported that, in November 2021, K-12 teachers’ separation rates surged to 66% above the levels reported 12 months earlier. There is also a decline in students choosing to become teachers. Those statistics, already dire before the pandemic, are now downright shocking. 

I am no longer in the classroom, but education has always been my life. I come from a family of teachers and coaches—wife, sister, both parents, three grandparents, an aunt, and a cousin. It’s just what we do in my family. I’m currently the Academic Director for an educational consulting firm. I’ve made a post-classroom life of designing graduate-level education coursework, writing books, and providing professional development, which allows me to be in contact with teachers daily. Education is hurting. I feel that pain as my own and desire to help in any way I can. 

What I can’t do here is solve the very specific issues that teachers face—less pandemic-related classroom support from paraprofessionals and parents, the balance between in-person and virtual teaching, students who have fallen behind, frequently changing guidance and decision-making, lack of substitute teachers, the politicization of K-12 education, and much more. These issues are evolving almost daily. 

What I can do is offer some food for thought about how you can elevate your own life to prioritize your most prized possession: you. By doing so, you give both you and your students a great gift: feeling your best when you meet them each and every day. 

The term “self-care” gets thrown around a lot these days. Honestly, when I was a young teacher, I would get frustrated when I heard direction to “take care of yourself” and move heaven and earth to ensure student success. What did not accompany this advice was any direction on exactly how to balance this directive. 

I’m advising you to act in a very selfish way in order to be the very best you can be—and not just in July. It will naturally pay many dividends for your students and career. 

The 5 habits I’m proposing can be accomplished quickly and simply, and you might choose just one habit to begin with. Before you do, I suggest you locate the most powerful tool you have in your possession to make this happen: a mirror. In it, you will find your greatest advocate for change, achievement, and living the best life possible. 

As you embark on this journey, remember that we are pain/pleasure creatures. We are constantly weighing the pain and pleasure of every decision we make. A recent study published in the Journal of Consumer Psychology (Hardisty & Weber, 2020) essentially showed that we want to have pleasurable things as soon as possible and delay bad things as long as possible. For many, the pain of continuing in the education profession has clearly outweighed the pleasure of following their passion. Whether you decide to be physical, meditate, create a morning routine, or practice gratitude, these are all pain/pleasure decisions. The creation of a new habit can be difficult. Sometimes the pleasure of procrastinating far outweighs the pain of habit creation. But you need to understand that, when it comes to self-care, if you don’t take action immediately, it will be a cause of immense pain down the road. It could even cost you your life or take years off it. 

It many societies and cultures around the world it can be difficult to remain healthy. Between chronic stress, the availability of food that we can hardly call “food,” more screen time and becoming more sedentary, the deck is stacked against us. Make no mistake: you can beat the odds. It’s about putting yourself at the top of your to-do list. 

These strategies are probably familiar, but you are not implementing them on a regular basis. Consider this blog a reminder. These 5 habits won’t take much of your time, but they could be the first steps in being more consistent with self-care. 

Check in with your body. If you’re feeling stressed, anxious, or depressed, check what you’re doing with your body, which usually reflects how we’re feeling. I like to say “our body will never betray our brain.” If you’re feeling, terrible you are most likely not in motion. It is also likely that your posture and facial expression represent what you’re feeling. Move immediately! Change your physical position. If you can only pull your shoulders back and put a smile on your face because you’re not able to be physically active, do it! Your physiology can change your psychology. By doing this, you are managing your own emotional state, which can instantly make you feel better. Turning to exercise can also help. Just eleven minutes of physical activity a day can boost your life expectancy (Ekelund et al., 2020) and counter the effects of sitting. 

Identify your fear. I often remind myself of this quote from Shakespeare: “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” It is you, and only you, who creates the meaning around any situation through your beliefs, previous experiences, filters, lenses, and personal history. That “thing” that is creating great stress in your brain can be reframed. Cognitive reframing can help minimize anxiety and depression and enhance quality of life (Shambhaw, Rumas, & Best, 2021). What belies most stress is fear. The key then becomes labeling the fear and moving past it. The next time you’re feeling burdened with stress, try this simple but effective process:  

Answer the following questions: Is the fear realistic? This helps to reframe and create perspective. What is the worst possible thing that could happen? This also helps create perspective. How can I move past this? This creates action. 

Practice gratitude. From enhanced well-being and deeper relationships to improved optimism and increased happiness, gratitude can improve both our physical and mental health (Ackerman, C. 2022). In the face of stress, feeling sad, or feeling anxious, being grateful can instantly change your mindset and defuse a situation. It also changes your perspective regarding what’s bothering you. Look for things to be grateful for. The more you feel thankful throughout the day the more moments of joy you can feel. If you’re up for writing in a gratitude journal each day or even once a week, the process of “gratitude mining” can be a significant help. 

Create a morning routine. Research shows that coming to work in a bad mood can negatively impact your work (Rothard & Wilk, 2011). Mood affects performance. Start your morning in a positive way. Creating a reliable morning routine can help transform your day. For now, think about what gives you joy or contentment and takes less than 15 minutes. Next, set your alarm 15 minutes earlier than normal and do it. Trust me—it works! 

Meditate on your “why.” Begin to think about your personal mission. What excites you? What do you value? How do you want to be remembered personally and professionally? My hope is that you will explore writing a personal mission statement. It provides a values-based statement in which to compare all future decisions and actions, which can be stress relieving itself. It can also help put you in the right state of mind as you begin each day in front of your students. 

Good luck! Hopefully these steps will provide you with the momentum to create greater wellness through purposeful and consistent action. If you’re interested in learning more, please consider my new Corwin publication: The Peak Performing Teacher: 5 Habits for Success. 

A more concise version of this blog was originally published at Corwin Connect and can be seen here: 



Mike Kuczala has delivered keynotes, given presentations, facilitated professional development and taught graduate courses on 4 continents. His presentations, courses, books and videos have reached more than 100,000 teachers, trainers, corporate executives and parents. He is also the coauthor of the Corwin Bestseller The Kinesthetic Classroom: Teaching and Learning through Movement, a book and philosophy that has changed the view of teaching and learning around the world. Mike’s 2nd book, Training in Motion: How to Use Movement to Create an Engaging and Effective Learning Environment, was released in 2015 (AMACOM) and Ready, Set, Go! The Kinesthetic Classroom 2.0 (Corwin) was released in the summer of 2017.

His 4th book, The Peak Performing Teacher: 5 Habits for Success (Corwin) was released in February. President of Kuczala Consulting and Academic Director for the Regional Training Center, Mike’s SRO presentations have been experienced in such diverse settings as The Educational Collaborative for International Schools, The East Asia Regional Council of Schools, The Francis Marion University Center of Excellence to Prepare Teachers of Children of Poverty Summer Institute, The American Society for Training and Development, The Forum for Innovative Leadership, The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the Society for Health and Physical Educators. For more information, please visit or



Ackerman, C. (2022). What is gratitude and why is it so important? 


Ekelund U, Tarp J, Fagerland MW, et al. Joint associations of accelero-meter measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality: a harmonised meta-analysis in more than 44 000 middle-aged and older individuals. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2020 Dec;54(24):1499-1506. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-103270. PMID: 33239356; PMCID: PMC7719907. 


Hardisty, D., & Weber, E. (2020). Impatience and savoring vs. dread: Asymmetries in anticipation explain consumer time preferences for positive vs. negative events. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 


Rothbard, N., & Wilk, S. (2011). Waking up on the right side of the bed: Start-of-workday mood, work events, employee affect, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 54(5), 969–980. 


Shambhaw, A. L., Rumas, R. L., & Best, M. W. (2021). Coping during the COVID-19 pandemic: Relations with mental health and quality of life. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 62(1), 92-100. 

Changes in maths pedagogy: Making maths accessible for all

Karen Morrison and Lisa Greenstein


According to Oxford University Press’ 2021 survey of maths educators, a massive 84% of teachers say they have changed how they teach maths in the last year or more. This situation has been exacerbated by the impact of the global pandemic, but maths pedagogy is continually shifting as learner needs and resources evolve. Here, we reflect on the changes in maths pedagogy over the last 10 years and explore how educators can now make maths more accessible for all.


Ten years ago, the buzzword in maths teaching was problem-solving. Teachers already had a sense of wanting to move away from drill and practice. They wanted to move towards giving students the tools to solve problems in creative ways, but there wasn’t a lot of commonly-used vocabulary around how to do that. This vocabulary issue was complicated further recently by the COVID-19 pandemic as 75% of educational professionals stated that school closures had impacted children’s understanding of mathematical language (Oxford University Press, 2021).


Some students struggle to visualise and communicate ideas in written or oral forms, and there are some students who don’t understand the task instructions (Lyttle, 2021). This lack of understanding is more profound with EAL students or those who are neruodiverse, such as with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Therefore, there is a need to not only plan maths lessons, but the specific language within those lessons, so we say what is mathematically meaningful (Prescott et. al., 2020).


Today, we (teachers) have so much more awareness of what it means to think mathematically. We talk about questions with an open middle. We talk about exploring mistakes. We’ve come such a long way from agitating over whether kids could remember the 7 times table.


The biggest change in the way we approach maths now is the shift towards asking big, open-ended questions from the beginning – before we teach kids a given algorithm or formula. You don’t want to start off by telling them how to do something, and then ask them to do it. You want to start off by posing a question that they can genuinely grapple with.


Rather than simply focusing on questions and answers, it’s now important to have wider conversations about maths. For example, by asking learners to explain how they arrived at an answer and discuss this with them (Sylva et. Al 2020). We need to create opportunities for rich interactions that involve lasting activities where children work together to solve problems, giving learners the thinking time they need to develop their own ideas and discuss them openly (Williams, 2021).


Today, we need to pose questions which include mixed units, reasoning and thinking, justifying your answer, and solving a problem that can have different solutions – and yet it doesn’t seem frightening or off-putting. This allows for everyone to feel included and encourages them to share their ideas.


Teachers are talking about growth mindset more than ever, and embracing this attitude in classrooms is slowly becoming the norrm. A growth mindset, put simply, is the realisation that there is no such thing as “good at maths”.


Not knowing the answer is part of the learning process and in fact, research shows that the brain can only make new connections when it experiences challenge (Wathall,2021). The human brain has incredible plasticity and learning is a process of stretching ourselves through the struggle of doing something that seems difficult – impossible even – at first. Children learn that this sense of struggle is ok. That it’s fine (and necessary even) to find maths difficult. The difficulty is not a sign of failure; it’s a sign of learning.


In order to encourage a growth mindset in pupils, teachers must utilize inquiry-based learning to promote debate, problem-solving and critical thinking to help build understanding. Allowing learners to work through problems with their friends can also make them more engaged and help to remove any stigma about struggling. Furthermore, high-ceiling, low-threshold activities allow every learner to demonstrate what they can do, without worrying about what they can’t do (Wathall, 2021).


Put simply, “Individuals who believe their talents can be developed (through hard work, good strategies and input from others) have a growth mindset” (Dweck, 2016).


The interventions carried out with struggling students in disadvantaged communities have shown that a more flexible approach and questions that genuinely make students think increase engagement, and lead to improved academic performance (Boaler, 2020).


When educational authors develop a primary maths course for children, they are now thinking about how best to start every child (and level of learner) on a lifelong journey with maths. They cover traditional bases of number sense, sorting, measuring, identifying shapes. Making the link between numerals and quantity is still, and always will be, essential for young learners’ understanding and they need access to many opportunities to experience and explore this (Williams, 2021). But authors also celebrate exploration and investigation; developing a sense of playfulness and fun, as well as a willingness to struggle when things get tricky. These things are often the intention of today’s mathematical education authors – to introduce challenge and struggle.


Another wonderful aspect of developing maths content today is social media. Just following a few hashtags – #mathteachersofinstagram, #mathsadventure, #numberchat, or #iteachmath – can turn up such a wealth of information and knowledge.


Teachers are having conversations in these spaces on how to cultivate a growth mindset in the classroom (Wathall, 2021); they are sharing moments of challenge or success from their own classroom experience; educators are sharing online resources and conferences and courses. Social media has its detractors, but ten years ago, teachers just didn’t have access to all this wonderful shared knowledge and experience.


Maths teaching in international schools is continually changing. But now, more than ever, teachers are focused on challenging traditional approaches to teaching maths, by changing perceptions of it in order to build curiosity, joy, and wonder in order to celebrate growth mindset and reduce anxiety. Developing and practicing behaviours such as problem solving, collaboration, and resilience will only continue to gain importance and focus in the years to come (Neale, 2021).


Introducing Nelson Maths

International Education experts, Karen Morrison and Lisa Greenstein have combined their knowledge and experience in the creation of the new edition of Nelson Maths – a rigorous, whole-school programme for teaching and learning maths from early years through to the end of primary education, from Oxford University Press. Written for learners across the world, it enables all children to start and sustain a lifelong journey with maths. The new edition includes a brand-new look and feel, vocabulary support and activities that prompt engagement with the latest mathematical thinking, such as problem solving and growth mindset. Find out more about the new Nelson Maths at:


Bibliography & further reading


Boaler, J. (2016) Mathematical Mindsets, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.


Dweck, C. (2015). Carol Dweck revisits the growth mindset. Education Week, 35(5), 20-24.


Greenstein and Morrison. (2022) “Making maths accessible for all: Behind the scenes with our writers”. Oxford University press [blog article] via: [Accessed 18/02/22].


Lyttle, D. (2021) “Lessons from the pandemic: Putting our findings into practice”. [Oxford University Press: Online Article] via [Accessed 18/02/2022]


Mitra, S. (2012). Beyond the Hole in the Wall. Ted books.


Mitra, S., & Crawley, E. (2014). Effectiveness of self-organised learning by children: Gateshead experiments. Journal of Education and Human Development, 3(3), 79-88.


Oxford University Press. (2021) “Maths and the impact of Covid-19: survey of international teachers”, Maths survey of UK teachers, Oxford University Press 2021.


Oxford University Press. (2021) “Preparing for the future: Using curiosity and creativity to boost confidence in maths. A whitepaper for international educators”. [Whitepaper] via [Accessed 18/02/2022]


Rowland, T (2008). The purpose, design and use of examples in the teaching of elementary mathematics. Educational studies in mathematics 69/2, 149-163.


Williams, H. (2021) “Building solid foundations”. [Oxford University Press: Online Article] via [Accessed 18/02/2022]


Wathall, J. (2016). Concept-Based Mathematics: Teaching for Deep Understanding in Secondary Classrooms (1 edition). Thousan Oaks California, Corwin.


Wathall, J. (2021). “Develop a growth mindset”. [Oxford University Press: Online Article] via [Accessed 18/02/2022]


Watson, A. (2021). Care in Mathematics Education: Alternative Educational Spaces and Practices. Springer Nature.